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兒孫輩輔助家中長輩學習電腦之調查研究
作者:蔡琰、臧國仁
  近年來隨著年長者學習電腦的機會日益增多,老人使用電腦業已愈形普遍,成人教育研究因而也常調查了老人學習之動機。但相關文獻迄今較少報告高齡者學習電腦時之「卑親屬」(子女、孫子女)對其學習的意見及看法,而親子間家庭互動與老人學習電腦成果的一般狀態也仍未明。本文旨在瞭解老人依賴兒女/孫輩的協助是否得以使其加快克服科技障礙並樂於學習電腦。研究結果顯示,家中長輩與晚輩針對不同學習議題意見不一,老人對學習電腦的「正向態度」多與家庭互動情形相關,而家庭互動與長輩的電腦使用「能力」無關。由於多數長輩以及僅少於半數的晚輩同意透過電腦教學親子關係能夠變得更好,顯示代間學習電腦的意義和效果在老一輩做為「子女的學生」情況下值得繼續鑽研。
關鍵詞:家庭關係、代間學習、高齡、電腦

A Survey on the Family Intergenerational Learning of Computers While Children Serve as Teachers
Yean Tsai&Kuo-jen Tsang
  With the increasing number of the elderly in households who are enjoying learning different applications of computers, not enough reports have been documented whether the learning is associated with younger generations at home, and the roles of family interaction in the learning process still appears to be unclear to us. The purpose of this paper is to survey the motivation of the the elderlyin the household who seek to learn how to use computers, and which are the most useful applications for them. It also aims to explore whether assistance from the younger generation at home contributes to the learning of the use of computers for the older generation. It has been discovered through a survey that good family interaction is positively related to the positive learning attitude for the elderly in the household The capability of the the elderly in the household in using computers, however, is not related to family interaction. Based on the findings of the survey it is recommended that related research on the learning of computers and other advanced technology where the younger generation serve as teachers to their aged relatives is worth further discussion. The communication pattern in traditional Chinese family is yet to be explored.
Keywords: computers,family communication,intergenerational learning,the elderly in the household
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初探「老人觀點」:以個案照片所述生命故事為例
作者:臧國仁、蔡琰
  本文旨在探析「老人觀點」,首先依序說明何謂「觀點」、「敘事觀點」以及「老人敘事主體性」,次則透過一位七十八歲個案老人提供的十張照片,以「第一人稱」視角耙梳了其以此些照片為自我敘事核心之「老人觀點」。本文發現,在個案自述生命故事中,「自我」、「人生重要經歷」、「家庭」三者是其回顧生命時擁有的特殊「老人觀點」。
關鍵詞:自我敘事、照片、觀點、老人

Exploring elderly people’s perspectives on pictures and life stories: A case study
Kuo-Jen Tsang & Yean Tsai
  The purpose of the research is to discuss facets of the perspectives of life from an aged viewpoint. The elder’s subjectivity and narrative viewpoint are the fundamentals of theories in the paper. It is argued that the elder’s subjectivity and perspectives on life lie inside his/her self-reported first-person narration. The research then invites a 78-years old woman to tell the life stories of her own by way of the 10 photographs selected from her own family albums. Three aged perspectives are found from the photographed narration through a method of point of view in narratives: the self, the most significant life experience(s) and family.
Keywords: narrative, life story, view point, elderly, photograph
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數位相片、家庭生命故事與代間學習電腦對傳播與 「後喻文化」的影響:理論提議
作者:蔡琰、臧國仁
  相片的傳播意涵、家庭及個人相片與老人認同的關係以及老人自我建構,均屬有待深入認識的傳播議題,國內外相關研究闕如。另一方面,老人向家中兒孫學習使用電腦或兒孫從家中長者認識家庭文化傳承也屬代間學習行為,均屬家庭傳播的模式與研究範疇。
  臺灣預計約於 2017 年正式進入高齡社會,約十年後(2025)進入「超高齡化社會」,我們亟需積累相關傳播研究以認識老齡。本文提議藉著老人向晚輩學習電腦及數位化家中舊相片的長幼互動過程,觀察科技情境下之長幼世代家庭關係及老人如何講述生命故事,藉此解構過去至今老人歷時存在的意向,藉著家庭價值傳承重新詮釋臺灣高齡社會的「新後喻文化」現象。
關鍵字:傳播、相片、生命故事、代間學習、家庭互動

Impacts of photo digitization, family life stories and intergenerational learning of computers upon communication and post-figuration culture:A theoretical proposal
Yean Tsai &Kuo-Jen Tsang
Literatures often suggest functions of photography on issues of memory, affect and self-construct identity, yet the communicative meaning of photograph has not been fully explored. Communication research which combines topics of family interaction, old and young generations and family photographs remain unstudied. It is expected to find cultural heritage and family value from current research under the frameworks of family communications.
In 2017, Taiwan is expected to enter the so-called ―aging society,‖ and in 2025 the ―super-aging society.‖ Large numbers of related research in communication are significantly needed if we want to understand our old age and our society better by then. This current study suspects that a ―neo post-figuration era‖ is possibly to come after we observe the interactions among family members in the process of intergenerational learning of computer, photographs and life stories. Keywords: communication, intergenerational learning, family interaction, life story, photograph.
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非虛構繪本之多模組敘事結構與閱聽人美感反應初探:以獲國際繪本大獎作品為例
作者:賴玉釵
  多模組敘事研究盼理解不同模組之文本結構,並盼剖析不同模組如何產生整合效應;亦盼體察符號資源如何組裝為整體,並召喚閱聽人參與。本研究以繪本為例,剖析繪本圖文模組如何發揮整合效益,並予閱聽人美感反應。以非虛構繪本敘事者言之,敘事者轉化紀實資訊為圖文時,可引述史料、科學家日誌、標本、科學定理公式及數據等訊息,以服膺閱聽人對「實證」等期待。閱聽人賞析非虛構式繪本敘事引發補白活動多與真實人生相繫,因現實人生歷練而引發同理及共鳴。
關鍵詞:多模組敘事、非虛構敘事、美感反應、圖像敘事、圖像詮釋、繪本

The multimodal narrative structure of nonfiction picturebooks and the aesthetic transaction of audiences: A case study of international award-winning picturebooks
Yu-Chai Lai
  When nonfiction picturebook narrators convert scientific biographies into pictures and texts, they cite historical materials, scientists‟ notes, specimens, and photographic works to improve the credibility of the content. Picturebooks that narrate scientific history can present factual figures and charts, such as a midship section, nautical charts, and star charts. Narrators can quote scientific theorems and formulae, precise data, and scientific notes to satisfy audiences‟ expectations for evidence.
  Multimodal narratives aim to identify how symbol resources are assembled as a whole and to encourage audience participation in the narratives by stimulating their sensory and spatial awareness. By elaborating on nonfiction pictorial narratives, audiences can obtain an insight into the image metaphors and referenced year based on their existing literary and historical knowledge. In addition, nonfiction picturebooks generate audience expectations regarding the narrative, such as whether the narrative is true to reality. Narrative filler information can be collected directly from real life, enabling audiences to experience a profound connection to the life story of the protagonist. In other words, nonfiction picturebooks provide aesthetic exchange processes through which readers can appreciate the books and identify with the content based on their real-life experiences.
Keywords: Multimodal narratives; nonfiction narrative; aesthetic response; iconographic narrative; iconographic interpretation
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老人的家庭傳播和社區參與:以花蓮慈濟志工為例
作者:羅彥傑
 本文以老人為研究視角,探討其家庭傳播與社區參與之間的關係,並以花蓮慈濟志工為研究對象。配偶是老人日常生活中最重要的家庭成員,但退休可能會使得雙方關係緊繃,研究發現,慈濟基金會提供的志工社區服務,適足以緩和緊張,讓老人的精力找到發洩的出口。慈濟雖然一開始以中高齡女眾居大多數,但鼓勵夫妻檔一起投入,即所謂的「志業家庭化」,故也能為習慣傳統性別刻板角色的男性所接受。這使得慈濟志工的家庭傳播類型多屬於共識型。隨著 1996 年底證嚴法師宣布落實「社區志工」理想,以委員人數重新界定「社區」的定義,慈濟志工的社區參與有了更豐富的內涵與樣貌,男性的參與程度也較先前更高。從受訪志工對慈濟表達的高滿意度來看,以宗教為基礎、以家庭為參與單位的社區參與模式,或許是達成老人與非營利組織雙贏的一種成功典範。
關鍵字:老人、家庭傳播、社區參與、慈濟、志工

Family Communication and Community Participation for the Elderly: 14 Cases of Tzu Chi Volunteers
Yen-chieh Lo
 This article seeks to examine the complex relationship between family communication and community participation for the elderly, with analyzing fourteencases of Tzu Chi volunteers in Hualien. The spouses are the most important family member for the retired elderly, but retirement may cause the tension and friction in marital life. The community volunteer service organized by Tzu Chi may enough ease up this tension and offer a new haven for the elderly. Despite the female volunteers outnumbering the male at first, Tzu Chi has encouraged the married couple together to participate in the community service, increasingly changing the imbalance of gender.
 The ideas of Buddhism and Confucianism combined and interpreted by Dharma Master Cheng Yen promote the conventional gender stereotype, which can beaccepted by the male believers. Therefore the Tzu Chi volunteers’ family communication types fall into the consensual family mostly. As Cheng Yen announced that Tzu Chi will implement the “community volunteer” system in late 1996, which defines the community size by the number of Tzu Chi committee members, the community participation at the local level of Tzu Chi volunteers has produced more varieties and forms. Considering the high-level satisfaction with Tzu Chi among the volunteers, the mode of religion-based, family-as-a-unit community participation may well be a success paradigm for the elderly and non-profit organizations in the future.
Keywords: aging, family communication, community participation, Tzu Chi,volunteers
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老人的媒體近用與公民參與研究:以主觀認知缺損者為例
作者:羅彥傑
 手持式行動裝置與社群網站的崛起與風行,讓過去在大眾媒體時代難以企及的媒體近用權與傳播權概念,有機會落實。然而,傳播科技的發達似未能令老人受惠,事實上,老人對於資訊(尤其是健康醫療)的需求反而比其他年齡族群更殷切。過去研究已顯示,老人的媒體近用權若無法提升,連帶也會影響其公民參與的意願與能力。再者,偏鄉與都會地區的數位落差有擴大之勢,偏鄉地區老人的媒體近用權也值得關注。另外,失智症在高齡化的當代社會愈來愈受到重視,失智者和正常人一樣,需要近用媒體來替自己發聲與維持認知活躍。本研究以發展成為失智者機率較高的「主觀認知缺損」老人為對象。透過對 14 名花蓮慈濟志工進行認知測驗與質性深度訪談,作者發現,「主觀認知缺損」的慈濟志工對電視依賴程度最高。多數人未使用智慧型手機或平板,但其使用與否似乎與學歷、社經地位無關。他們因體認到自身有記憶衰退的問題,因此會設法「適應」這樣的變化,包括提出不同的媒體近用策略,而這些策略又與其公民參與活動互相影響。
關鍵詞:老人、媒體近用、公民參與、慈濟志工、主觀認知缺損

Engagement: Cases of Tzu Chi Volunteers with Subjective Cognitive Impairment in Hualien
Yen-chieh Lo
New communication technologies such as smartphones and tablets, which have the potential to promote access to the media and communication rights for citizens, have been popular among young generation, but not older adults. In contrast, older adults are more desperate for information (especially on health) than the young.
Previous studies have shown that the elderly’s media access deeply influences their willingness and capability of civic engagement. Furthermore, digital divide between cities and rural areas is worsening rapidly, with older adults in rural areas are more worth watching and studying. Besides, patients with dementia, which is developing a crisis in modern society, need media to express their views and activate their minds just as healthy people do. The paper focuses on Tuz Chi volunteers with subjective cognitive impairment, which is more likely to develop dementia. Based on the mini-cog test and in-depth interviews of 14 volunteers, the author finds that they depend on TV more than on other media. Most interviewees do not usesmartphones and tablets, irrelevant to their education level and socio-economic status. The volunteers with SCI seem to recognize that they must adapt to the poor memory with some strategies for media access. Their strategies for media access and civic engagement affect each other.
Keywords: older adults, media access, civic engagement, Tzu Chi volunteer, subjective cognitive impairment
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無字繪本藝術創作端召喚讀者參與之敘事策略初探:以美感傳播歷程為思辨起點
作者:賴玉釵
  本文考量「圖像轉向」,期盼理解「圖像敘述者」如何召喚讀者交流之美感傳播歷程。無字繪本僅以圖像呈現而缺文字闡明情節,或為圖像敘事代表。本文以強調視覺導向之國際大獎作品為例,剖析無字繪本藝術創作端召喚讀者參與之敘事策略。敘述者依循對預設讀者之想像而構築敘事策略,據此安排視覺元素、表現客體、指涉系統及圖式化等召喚式結構層次作為引發讀者想像力機制之策略。藝術創作端考量預設讀者之審美發展並留補白空間,鼓勵親師共讀以助兒童克服不確定感。
關鍵詞:召喚式結構、兒童文學、美感傳播、想像力、圖像敘事、繪本

The Response of Children to the Inviting Structure of Wordless Picture books: An Example of the Aesthetic Communication of Wordless Picture books
Yu-Chai Lai
In this study, we analyzed the response of audiences regarding wordless picture books from the perspective of aesthetic communication. The communication process was assessed according.
For describing an inviting structure, a narrator can use image syntax and sequence to balance the consistency and continuity of involved images. The referential system, or the context that readers associate with the roles of children’s literature, increases their enjoyment and appreciation of picture books. When viewing pictures, readers can switch between frames and pages to interpret the causal relationships that form the story.
Because wordless picture books have no anchor text or specific answers, they provide young readers with room to imagine. Children must recreate the story every time they read a picture book, which enables young readers and authors to coconstruct pictorial narratives and share aesthetic experiences.
Keywords: aesthetic communication, children’s literature, imagination, inviting structure, pictorial narrative, picturebooks
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家庭敘事之飲食記憶與生命傳承-以口述家傳菜餚為例
作者:黃芮琪
  食物往往蘊藏著無形情感與過往生命記憶。以家庭飲食而言,舉凡食物的味道、口感與氣味皆可能牽引出家庭關係與父母形象等生命故事。據此,本研究旨在以「家庭敘事」之研究視角探討家庭中飲食、記憶與生命傳承之關聯,主要鎖定「家傳菜餚」之家庭共食情境與敘事內涵,從而探討家庭中獨有的飲食口味如何承載與紀錄家庭生命歷程。
  研究發現,家傳菜餚的故事內容由個人、家庭與菜餚在各式情境之下交織而成,描述昔日飲食經驗時更展現家庭生活背景、家庭信仰與成員性格等內涵。而過往家庭記憶主要透過「倒敘」手法浮現,但其不只是單向回溯過往經驗,敘事者的記憶軌跡往往與現今家庭生活與未來人生交錯對話。
  此外,家傳菜餚的味道與意義可協助個人理解家庭與建構自我。由於日常飲食經驗於長遠家庭生命歷程中可逐漸形塑為家庭獨有之飲食習慣與傳統,後輩成員得以透過經驗之複製與轉移進而將家庭生命的「過去」、「現在」與「未來」彼此牽連並開展新機。

Food Memory and Life Inheritance in Family Narratives --A Dictated Analysis of Family Recipes
Jui-Chi Huang
 Food often contains invisible emotions and life memories, and its taste and smell are also likely to touch off family stories. With this in mind this study aims to explore possible connections among food, memory and life in families from the perspective of “family narratives,” focusing on clues that may be inherent in “family recipes,” with a purpose to understand how family tastes may record life courses.
 It was found in this study that stories of family recipes are co-constructed by food and different members of the family. These stories not only describe these members’ past experiences in food cooking but also trace their life backgrounds, family values and personalities. Following this sense family memories often emerge from "flashbacks" while describing food story, and in doing so the time flow of present and future appears commonly.

 In addition, when food stories are always linked up with family traditions, the taste and meaning of family recipes are also useful in identity construction.
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大眾傳播研究之敘事取向― 另一後設理論思路之提議
作者:臧國仁、蔡琰
大眾傳播領域自二十世紀五○年代發跡迄今已逾半個世紀,疲態
漸生,急需引進不同研究視角。本文建議以九○年代起即已廣受重視
之敘事取向為例,改視大眾傳播為「在某些特定時空情境、透過中介
人造物件並常藉由大眾媒介管道述說故事的歷程」,其內容涉及講述
者之自述/他述生命故事,旨在抒發情感、激發想像、促進彼此傾聽
以建立社區感,進而體驗人生、瞭解生命意義、創造美好生活,與傳
統實證主義效果論之思維顯有不同。
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