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論新聞讀者之「想像」:初探「記實報導」可能引發的線索
作者:蔡琰、臧國仁
「想像」一向是虛構敘事的主要內涵,如小說或電影類型均常透過此一概念來表達敘事者之創作意念與內在感知。新聞專業領域卻常視「想像」為忌諱,乃因新聞理論奠基於實證主義而篤信客觀義理,認為新聞記者撰寫報導時應恪守中立原則,既要避免寫作內容有任何作假或想像的編織,也要力圖「據實報導」,以免閱讀者產生遐想或天馬行空式之幻想。
  本文挑戰新聞與想像必須對立的觀點,進而提出需要重視想像的原因,透過整理相關文獻後提出十個可能引起讀者對新聞文字產生意象的文字線索,繼以「聯合資料庫」裡與老人相關之新聞報導為例,由自願者標示各類引起其想像之新聞寫作內容。初步歸納以下發現:1. 一些有關人地事物、日期、數目等資訊報導較不引起閱讀者想像;2. 新聞報導裡的形容詞、細節描述、感官/空間/生命經驗等說明常易引起閱讀想像;3. 不同閱讀者對同樣新聞描述之想像或有不同。
(蔡琰、臧國仁(2010)。〈論新聞讀者之「想像」:初探「記實報導可能引發的線索〉。《中華傳播學刊》第十七期,頁235-268)

On News and Imagination: An Exploratory Analysis of the Readers’ Responses
Yean Tsai & Kuo-Jen Tsang
News professionalism has long been holding the objective doctrine to
insist on writing news stories on an impartial stand to avoid any possibility
of arousing the reader’s imagination. The reason, according to textbooks
and news instructors, is mainly because the readers need to know truth and
nothing but the truth.
The purpose of this study aims to challenge the old journalistic
doctrine by analyzing news stories, mostly about aging people, collected
from the UDN dada bank by using 10 indices all relating to the concept of
imagination. The result shows that, not surprisingly, stories about names,
places, dates can hardly arouse any imagination from readers. Stories using
adjectives and imagery, describing details of events, and delineating human
experiences could easily stir up imagination.
Keywords: imagination, news, reader
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想象與創造性:想像新聞敘事思維再現的藍圖
作者:蔡琰、臧國仁
 延續敘事論(narrotology)與建構論的(constructionism)觀點,本文旨在探討「想像」是否在解讀、撰述真實新聞故事時擔負某些角色?其在不同時機與環節之新聞敘事功能與作用為何?本文從過去傳播領域較少關注的角度切入「想像」議題籍以辮識其在新聞敘事可能具有之特徵,試圖厘清「想像」與「創造性想像」如何在思維運作,進而說明其在新聞採訪與編寫過程的可能作用。本文認為,「想像」既是先天具備的思維能力亦是除了記憶、情感外的特定思維類型。
  本文因而關切記者如何使用內在方法或思維策略來找線並撰寫其採訪所得,「想像」又如何與記憶、聯想、意象等其他思維共同推動記者所規劃並完成再現真實之轉譯工作。本文強調,新聞敘事包含了意識與想像相互運作之情境作用,而這個「情境」應屬人們內在思維的建構,更是腦海中思維寫作的程式。

(蔡琰、臧國仁(2010)。〈想象與創造性:想像新聞敘事思維再現的藍圖〉。《國際新聞界》2010年,第6期。)

Imagination and Creative Imagination: A Primitive Proposal for Their Application in News Narritive
Yean Tsai & Kuo-Jen Tsang
Following our previous discussions on news narrative , this paper further proposes, mostly based on narratology and constructionism, to consider the role of imagination, including creative imagination, in the process of news reporting and writing. It is temporarily considered in this paper that imagination is both inherited annd learned from experiences associated with memory and affect. In that sense, we are curious whether the reporters use any internal strategy to look for news clues before they complete the assignment. We also wonder how imagination may be used to help plan and accomplish their duties in representing social realities. Finally it is proposed in this paper that news narrative should include a combined influence from the context, which, comprised by both consciousness and imagination, would construct the human’s inner thought and writing procedure.
Key Words:News, Narrative, Creative Imagination
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